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This new fresh material and you will dataset arrive during the

After that second article, people accomplished another short term survey including an equivalent things given that basic to your analysis of culprit. A last point alarmed participants’ level of governmental notice, political mind-positioning towards the 10-area left–right continuum, sex, many years, section of household and knowledge.

Participants was indeed randomly assigned to certainly one of six fresh criteria derived in the 2 (perpetrator’s sex) ? 3 (restoration tactic) between participants factorial framework.

All the actions did within study was indeed in accordance with the moral requirements of national browse committee and with the 1964 Helsinki endments.

Investigations of one’s political actor

People said their worldwide feelings to the make believe politician towards the an effective 10-part level (step one = completely negative to help you 10 = totally positive) double, immediately following in the T1 (post-scandal) and once from the T2 (post–defensive reaction). The effectiveness of the defensive strategy inside fixing character try grabbed from the change in review of protagonist.

Analysis of your politician’s communality and you may service before and after their or this lady justification of one’s scandal

The fresh new participants examined the newest scandal culprit into the an effective 5-section level anywhere between step 1 (not at all) to 5 (a whole lot) twice, just after adopting the scandal (T1) and when following the perpetrator’s protective effect (T2). Professionals ranked the fresh perpetrator into the around three adjectives for every single to the communality measurement (truthful, no strings attached PЕ™ihlГЎЕЎenГ­ sensible and you may empathetic) and you may department dimension (calculated, skilled and solid; elizabeth.grams., Bauer 2017 ). The fresh new indicator constructed on the latest indicate situations reached satisfactory precision: ? communality blog post-scandal = 0.80; ? communality blog post-reason = 0.74; ? institution post-scandal = 0.63; ? department blog post-justification = 0.67.


Initial regression analyses for instance the politician’s attractiveness, respondents’ sex, respondents’ political positioning, respondents’ quantities of interest in politics and you can respondents’ standard concerning relative honesty of women and people did not give people main neither interaction effect on the newest centered variables. As such, they don’t meet the requirements for the then analyses.

We tested H1 using a 3 (type of defensive tactic) ? 2 (perpetrator’s gender) ANOVA on the global attitude toward the politician after his/her defensive reaction including the previous attitude (T1) as a covariate. The hypothesised two-way interaction between the independent variables proved to be the only significant effect, F (2, 185) = 6.06; p = 0.003; ? 2 p = 0.06 (Figure 1 ). Further inspection of this interaction revealed that the ‘diffusion of responsibility with accusation of another person’ was effective only when used by the man, simple slope = 0.11, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [0.03, 0.19], whereas the ‘excuses with claims of mitigating circumstances’ was effective only when used by the woman, simple slope = 0.09, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [0.00, 0.17]. Finally, contrary to our expectations, ‘mortification with request for forgiveness’ did not vary its efficacy as a function of the politician’s gender, simple slope = 0.00, SE = 0.04, 95% CI [–0.08, 0.08].

Suggest all over the world thinking towards a scandal perpetrator since the a function of his/the woman sex while the verbal strategy regularly defend your/herself.

Regarding H2, the ANOVA including the agentic and communal dimensions measured at T2 as a repeated factor (and those measured at T1 as covariates) revealed the main effect of the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = 9.13, p = 0.003, ? 2 p = 0.05, signalling that the defensive reactions were globally more effective in improving the perpetrator agentic traits (M = 0.30, SD = 0.17) than the communal ones (M = 0.27, SD = 0.18). This analysis also elicited the two-way interaction between the type of defensive tactic and the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = 9.13, p 2 p = 0.14, indicating that the ‘diffusion of responsibility’ improved the evaluation of the perpetrator on agentic traits more than the other defensive tactics, that did not differ from each other at the LSD post-hoc test, whereas none of the tactics differed from each other as for the efficacy in improving the perceived perpetrator communality. In addition, the two-way interaction between the gender of the politician and the repeated factor, F (1, 184) = , p 2 p = 0.15 showed that the defensive reactions, irrespective of the type, improved the communality traits of the female politician (M = 0.31, SD = 0.19) more than those of the male one (M = 0.23; SD = 0.17), simple slope = 0.06, SE = 0.02, 95% CI [0.02, 0.10], whereas they were equally effective in improving the agentic traits of the male politician (M = 0.32, SD = 0.18) and those of the female one (M = 0.28, SD = 0.16), simple slope = 0.04; SE = 0.02, 95% CI [–0.01, 0.08].

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